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O 7^ 

The Inconveniencic of the A E R 



With fbme Remedies humbly 


To His Sacred M a j e s t i e , 


To the Parliament now Affemblcd. 

Pnblijhed by Hk Majejiies Comntand* 

Lucret. 1. j. 
Cdrhnumque gravis vit ^ dtquc.pdtr inpnuAtnr 
^dm fdcilt in ctrthrnm f 

Printed by W. godbld for Cjayriel Bedel , and ThomM Collins , 

and are to be fold at their Shop at thj {fiddle Temple Gate 

ncer Temfle-Bar. {M, 'DC, L X I, 

Queen's University 
Libraries I. 


S ?^ f^ c i a I C 

Professor J. A. W. Gunn, 

Kingston, Ontario, Canada 




Published by The Rota at the University of Exeter 

AC^/i }(-hl^ £^3 

c The Rota, 1976 
ISBN: 904617 06 i 


John Evelyn (1620-1706) was a connoisseur of cities. Exten- 
sive travel in Europe and exile in Paris awakened in him an ad- 
miration for the well-planned developments, the neo-classical 
architecture and wide range of amenities and ornamentation of 
the foremost cities of Italy and France. He became particularly 
sensitive to the dirty and undignified condition of London, and 
elaborated a number of projects and schemes for its amelior- 
ation. The first attack on the squalor of London came in his 
satirical tract A character of England (1659). Despite its noble 
site he found it 'a city consisting of a wooden, northern, and 
inartificial congestion of houses; some of the principal streets 
so narrow, as there is nothing more deformed and unlike than 
the prospect of it at a distance, and its asymmetrie within the 
walls.' The only modern architectural works Evelyn admired 
there were those by Inigo Jones, notably the portico at St. 
Paul's and the Banqueting House. Even these were 'so sordidly 
obscur'd and defac'd that an argument of greater avarice, ma- 
lice, meanness, and deformity of mind, cannot possibly be ex- 
pressed: nothing here of ornament, nothing of magnificence, no 
publique and honourable works...' Moreover the city was cloak- 
ed in 'such a cloud of sea-coal, as if there be a resemblance of 
hell upon earth, it is in this vulcano in a foggy day: this pest- 
ilent smoak, which corrodes the very yron, and spoils all the 
moveables, leaving a soot on all things that it lights: and so 
fatally seizing on the lungs of the inhabitants, that the cough 
and the consumption spares no man.' 

Evelyn returned to this theme in his tract, Fumifugium. in 
1661, when he saw some hope of improvements to be effected 
by the newly restored Charles H . The Diary for 14 September 
records, T presented my Fumifugium dedicated to his Majestic 
who was pleased I should publish it by his special Command; 
being much pleased with it.* On 1 October Evelyn reports a 
discussion about the proposals in Fumifugium. the king 'Comm- 
anding me to prepare a Bill, against the next session of Parl- 
iament, being (as he said) resolved to have something don in it'. 
On 11 January 1661/2 Evelvn 'received of Sir Peter Ball (the 
Queenes Attourney) a draugfit of an Act against the nuisance 
of the smoke of Lond , to be reformed by removing severall 
Trades, which are the cause of it, and inaanger the health of 
the King and his people &c; which was to have beene offered to 
the Parliament, as his Majesty commanded'. The new Augustus, 
however, soon disappointed his hopes by neglecting to press 
for legislation. The matter is heard of no more. Perhaps it is 
worth noting that nowhere does Evelyn suggest who should pay 
for the removing, relocating and rebuilding of the main 'works' 
to which he objected. 

Evelyn himself persisted in efforts to get London cleansed 
and embellished. In 1662 he was appointed a Commissioner for 
the improvement of the City streets; he effectively encouraged 
the planting of trees in the royal parks; in 1664 he published /I 
parallel of architecture, translated from the French of Frcrart. 
to stimulate the application of neo-classical styles in modern 
building, and he became involved with Wren in the project to re- 

build St Pauls. In an unexpected fashion the Great Fire removed 
without charge many of the problems of the medieval London 
that Evelyn so much deplored. Nowhere is his zeal in public 
affairs more evident than in the speed with which he put to- 
gether his proposals for rebuilding along lines that would have 
made London the most spacious, commodious and elegant city 
of Europe, with an imposing waterfront and a promenade and 
quay all the way from the Temple to the Tower. He submitted 
his plans to the king on 13 September 1666. only six days after 
the fire had ceased. But once more he was frustrated. The 
diversity of private interests made his ideas impractical from 
the start, and he had to resign himself to watching the piece- 
meal rebuilding of the city. Although many of the improvements 
must have pleased him. Evelyn surely always regretted the 
failure of his most imaginative project, the planting of the great 
aromatical hedge around London. Notwithstanding his sug- 
gestion that the foul 'Aer itself [was] a potent and great disposer 
to Rebellion', Evelyn's abiding interest in this was horticult- 
ural, given literary expression in' his Elysium Britannicum and 
a practical one in his sweet-scented gardens at Sayes Court. 

Fumifugium went through two issues in 1661. and was re- 
printed in 1772 and again in 1825. when it appeared in the Misc- 
ellaneous writings of John Evelyn. It has been reprinted several 
times in the twentieth century: by the Swan Press and by the 
Ashmolean Museum (both in 1930 from the 1772 edition); by the 
National Smoke Abatement Society in 1933 and 1961. also from 
the 1772 edition; and by the National Society for Clean Air in 
1944. No facsimile of either issue of 1661 has previously 

The first issue of 1661 (Keynes 23) bears on its title page 
the words 'Published by His Majesties Command'. In the second 
issue (Keynes 24) those words have been deleted, the misspell- 
ings 'Mation' and 'Naritime' on p. 18 have been corrected but 
not the misprinted page number 14 for 24. The first issue is 
here reproduced by permission of the Curators from a copy in the 
Bodleian Library, shelf-mark Wood D. 27. (5); Wing E3488. The 
Rota is grateful to Dr. Graham Parry for his substantial contri- 
bution to this note. 


O 7^ 

The Inconveniencic of the A E R 



TOCj STHe%^ 

With fome Remedies humbly 


By J. E. Efq; 
To His Sacred M a j e s t i e , 


To the Parliament now Aflemblcd. 

Publijhed by Hk Majefiies Command, 

Lucret. I. 5. 
Cdrbonumque gravis vis , atque odor infinuAtnr 
^AfH JAttlt in certbrum f < • 

Printed by ff. Cjodbid for (jabrlet Bedel , and ThotnM Collins y 

and are to be fold at their Shop at th j ^Middle Temfle Gate 

neer Temfle-Bar. (J^. 'DC. L X L 



SIR , 

IT was one day, as I was Walking 
in Your MAJESTIES Palace 
at WHITE'HALL (where 
I have (bmetimes the honour to rcfrefh 
my felf with the Sight of Your Illu- 
ftrious Prefence, which is the Joy of 
Your Peoples hearts) that a prefump- 
tuous Smoake iffuing from one or two 
Tunnels neer Northumberland'Houfe , 
and not far from Scot land-yard y did fo 
invade the Court; that all the Rooms, 
Galleries , and Places about it were 
fill d and infefted with it , and that to 
fuch a degree, as Men could hardly 
difcern one another for the Clowd , 
and none could (upport , without ma- 
nifeft Inconveniency. It was not this 

A 2 which 


which did firft fuggeft to me what I 
had long (incc conceived againft this 
pernicious Accident, upon frequent 
obfervation ; But it was this alone , 
and the trouble that it muft needs pro- 
cure to Your Sacred Majefty, as well 
as hazzard to Your Health , which 
kindled this Indignation of mine^ a- 
gainft it, and was the occalion of what 
it has produc'din thefe Papers. 

Your Ma;efty who is a Lover of 
noble Buildings , Gardens, Pidures, 
and all Royal Magnificences, muft 
needs defire to be freed from this pro- 
digious annoyance ; and, which is fo 
great an Enemy to their Luftre and 
Beauty , that where it once enters 
there can nothing remain long in its 
native Splendor and PerfeSion : Nor 
muft I here forget that Illuftrious and 
divine PrinceflTe, Your Majefties only 
Sifter, the now Dutcbeffe oi Orleans y 
who at her Highmfe Jate being in this 



City , did in my hearing, complain of 
the Effcds of this Smoake both in her 
Bread and Lungs , whilft She was in 
Your Majefties Palace. I cannot but 
greatly apprehend , that Your Ma- 
;efty ( who has been fo long accufto- 
md to the excellent Aer of other 
Countries) may be as much offended 
at it 5 in that regard alfo ; efpecially 
fincc the Evil is fo Evidemicall ; indan- 
gering as well the Health of Your 
SubjedSj as it fullies the Glory of this 
Your Imperial Seat. 

Sir,! prepare in this fhort Difcourfe, 
an expedient how this pernicious Nui- 
fame may be reformed ,• and offer at 
another alfo ^ by which the Aer may 
not only be freed from the prefcnt In- 
conveniency; but (that remov'd)to 
rendernot only Your Majefties Palace, 
but the whole City likewife , one of 
thefweeteft, andmoft delicious Ha- 
bitations in the World ; and this^with 



little or no expence ; but by improving 
thofc Plantations which Your Majc- 
fly fb laudably afFeds , in the moyft , 
deprefled and Marfliy Grounds about 
the Town , to the Culture and pro- 
duftion of (uch things , as upon eve- 
ry gentle emiflion through the Aer , 
ftiould fo perfume the adjacent places 
with their breath ; as if ^ by a certain 
charm, or innocent Magic\^y they 
were transferred to that part of Ara- 
biay which is therefore fly I'd the Hap- 
py y becaufe it is amongft the Gums 
and precious fpices. Thofe who take 
notice of the Sent of the Orange-How- 
ersfrom the Rivage of Genoa ^ and 
SuPietro dell' Arena; the Bloffomes of 
the Rofemary from the Coafts o( Spain 
many Leagues off at Sea ,• or the ma- 
nifeft , and odoriferous wafts which 
flow from Fontenay and Vaugirard y 
even to Faris in the feafbn of Rofes , 
with the contrary EflfeSs of thofe lefs 



plcafing fmells from other accidents , 
will eafiJyconfentto what I fuggeft : 
And, I am able to enumerate a Cata- 
logue of native Tlants , and fuch as 
are familiar to our Country and Clime, 
whofe redolent and agreeable Emif- 
fions would even ravifh our fenfcs , as 
well as perfeftly improve and melio- 
rate the Aer about London ; and that, 
without the leail: prejudice to the Ow- 
ners and Proprietors of the Land to 
be employed about it. But becaufe I 
have treated of this more at large in 
another curious and noble fubjeft, 
which I am preparing to prefent to 
Your Majefty, as God ftiall afford 
me Leafure to finifh it , and that I 
give a Touch of it in this Difcourfc, 
I will enlarge my Addrefles no farther, 
then to beg pardon for this Prefump- 
tion of 


Tonr Majejties ever Lojal , moji obedient 

Sulfjecty and Servant. 


To the Reader. 

I Have little here to add to implore tfjy good 
opimon and approbation^ after I have fnbntit* 
ted this Effay to his Sacred Majejiy : But as it is 
of umverfal benefit that I propound it j fo I ex- 
peB a civil entertainment and reception. I have y 
I confeffe , been frequently difpleafed at the f mall 
advance and improvement of Publick Works 
in this Nation , wherein itfeems to be much in* 
feriour to the Countries and Kingdomes which are 
round about it ^ efpecially , during thefe late 
years of our fad Confufions : But now that God 
has miraculoujly refiord to us our Prince^a Prince 
of fo magnanimous and Publick^a Spirit^ we may 
promife our f elves not only a recovery of our for- 
nter Splendor \ but alfo whatever any of our 
Neighbours enjoy of more univerfal benefit , for 
Health or Ornament : In fumme , whatever may 
do honour to a Nat ion fo perfeSily capable of all 

It is in order to this , that I have prefumed to 
offer thefe few Propofalsfor the Meliorating and 
refining the Aer of London h being extren. eJy 
ama^d , that where there is fo great an affluence 
of all things which may render the People of this 
^afl City , the moji happy upon Earth h the for- 

a didy 

To the R B A D B R. 

did , and ace w fed A*varice offomfen> Farticu* 
lar fcrfons , (honld he fuffered to prejudice the 
health and felicity of fo many : That any Proft 
^be fides what h ofahfolnte neceffity )JhoHld render 
ntenregardleffe of what chiefly imports them^when 
it may be purchafed uponfo eafie conditions , and 
with fo great advantages : For it is not happinefs 
to poffeffe Gold , but to enjoy the EffeSs of it , 
and toT^now how to li<ve cheerfully and in health , 
Non eft vivere, fed valere vita. That men 
tphofe very Being is Aer , ffjould not breath it 
freely when they may i but (as that Tyrant usd 
his Z^jjfals ) condemn themf elves to this mifery 
& Fumo praefocari , is ftrange jiupidity : yet 
thus we fee them walk^and converfe in London, 
purfud and haunted by that infernal Smoake^ and 
xhefuneji accidents which accompany it wherefo: 
ever they retire. 

That this Glorious and Antient City , which 
from Wood might be rendred Brick^, and ( Ukfi 
another Rome ) from Bricks made Stone and 
Marble , which commands the Proud Ocean to 
the Indies , and reaches to the fartheji Antipo- 
des 3 Jhould wrap herflately head in Clowds of 
Smoakfi and Sulphur^ fofullofStin\and Dark: 
nejfe^ I deplore with jufl Indignation, That the 
h\x\\^\t\gs jhcnld be compos d offuch a Congefiion 
f ■" mijhapen and extravagant Houfes j That the 


To the R E A B B K, 

Streets Ihcnld be fe narrow and incommodious in 
the 'very Center^ and hufiefl places of Inter conrfe : 
^hat there jhould befo ill and uneafie a form of 
Paving underfoot , fo trouhlefome and malicious 
a diffofure of the bJpouts and Gutters oz^erheady 
are particulars worthy of Reproof and Reforma- 
tion 5 becaufe it is hereby rendred a Labyrinth m 
its principal pajfages ^ and a continual li et-day 
after the Storm is over. Add to this the Defor- 
mity of fo frequent Whzrfes and Maga-Lines of 
Wood, Coale , Boards, and other courfe Ma- 
terials , moft of them imploying the F I aces of the 
l^obleft afpeSifor thefituation of Palaces tnwards 
the goodly Ri<i/er , when they might with far Itjfe 
T>if grace , be removed to the Bank- fide, and af- 
terwards difpofed with as much facility where 
the Confumption of thefe Commodities lyes '^ a 
Key in the mean timefo contrived on London- 
fide 5 as might render it lejfe fenfible of the Reci- 
procation of the Waters , for Z^fe and Health 
infinitely fuperiour to what it now enjoys. Thefe 
are the Defider-ata which this great City labours 
under , and which wefo much deplore. But I 
fee the Dawning of a brighter day approach , IVe 
have a Prince who is Refolvd to be a Father to 
his Country \ and a Parliament whofe Decrees 
and Refentiments tah^e their Impreffwn from his 
Majefiies great Gcnms ^ which fludies only tie 


To the R £ A D E R* 

ruhlicyCood. It isfrm them tbertfore , that 

wt Angure our future bafpinej^e s ftna there ^ 

nothing which mil fotPtuch perpetuate their Me- 

tmries 'i ormorejufily tuerit it. Mcdails and 

Inlcriptions have heretofore preftrvd the Fame 

of lejfe Fublicl^Bettefits , and for the Repairing 

of a Dilapidated Bridge , a decaid Aquxdud , 

ihefavingcfaWay^ or draining a foggy Marjhy 

tUir Elogics and Rcverfcs ha<ve outlafied the 

Marble fy and been tranf mitt ed to future Ages ^ 

after fo many thoufand Revolutions : But thk is 

the leafi of that which we Decree to our Auguft 

CHARLES, and which is due to his lUujl- 

rioHS Senators , becaufe they will live in our 

Hearts y and in our Kccovds ^ which are more 

permanent and lofting. 

I.May. 1661. 




O R, 

The Inconvenicncy of the Smoak 

of London diflipated, ^c. 

Part. I. 

IT is not without fome confidcrabk Analogy that fun- Animi^ qiufi 
dry of xhcM/ofophers have nam'd the Aer the f^ehicle «ri^t(^. 
ofth*S$»l'y as well as that of the Earth, and this frail 
Veffell of ours which contains it ; fince we all of us 
finde the benefit which we derive /from it, notonely 
for the ncceflity of common Refpiration and ftini^ions 
of the Organs ; but likewife for the ufe of the Sflrits and Pnmi- 
gene Humors^ which doe moft neerly approach that Divine par- 
ticle. But we ftiall not need to infill, or refine much on this 
fublimc Subjeft ; and, perhaps it might fcandalize Ccrupulous Per- 
fons topurfijc to the height it may poflTibly reach ( as D\ogen«s and 
Anaxlmenes were wont to DelfU it ) after we are paft the o/C- 
tberldy which is a certain -r^^- of *?//»•<>'/ denomination, as well \nri». 
as that of the Icfle pure, more turbulent and denfe, which, for 
moft part we live and breath in, and which comes here to be exa- 
min a as it relates to the defign in hand, the City of London^ and 
the environs about it. 

It would doubtleffe be efteem'd for a ftrange and extravagant 
TttrsJUx^ that one lliould affirmc, that the Aer it felfe is many 
limes a potent and great difpofer to Kehclllon ; and that InJttUrj 
ff(ffUy and indeed, moft of the Se^cntrion Trails, where this Me- 
tUttm is groflc and heavy, are extremely verfatile and obnoxious to 
change both in Religious and Secular Affaires : Plant the Foote 
of your Compalfes on the very Poify and extend the other limb 
to 50 dfrrces oi LMitttd* : bring it about 'till it dcfcribe the Cir- 
cle, ancTthen reade the Hiftories of thofe Nations indufively and 

B make 


make th; Calculation. It muft be confeCs'd, that the ^ir of ibofe 
ClimMtesy is not fo pure and Defecate as thofe which arc nccrcr the 
Trop'ckj, wbfire the Continent is leifc racged , and the Weather 
more conlHni and ftead/,M Will as ihc Inclination and Temper 
of the Inhabitants . 

But it is not here that I preietid to fpcculate upon diefe Caufes, 
ornicelyto examine thj Diicourfes of the 5ro»Vi(^/ and Perlfdte- 
ucksy\y\rjkviz the Atr be in it felf,gcncrally cold, humid, warm or 
exidly temper'd fo as belt conduces to a materlall frincifUy of 
which it is accounted one of the four ; 6ecaiifc they are altogether 
'ThyftcMll notions, and do not come under our cogrvfance as a pure 
ana fincere tlem^nt ; but as it is particularly inquinated, infe^ed, 
participating of the various Accidents, and inform 'd by extrin- 
lecalCaufes, which render it noxious to the /»A<e^.'V4«/, who de- 
rive and make ufc of it for Life. Ncvertbekffe, for diftindion 
Uke, we may yet be allow'd to repute lomc Atrs fxrcy compara- 
tivsily, W*.. That which is deare, open , fwectcly vcntilaicd 
and put into motion with gentk gales and breezes i not too fhafp, 
but of a temperate conftitutution. In a word,Tibrf/ we pronounce 
for «ood and pure t/ier^ which heat not to fweats and faintneife j 
nor cooles to rigidnelfe and trembling ; nor dries to wrinkles and 
iurdneife; normoyttensto refolution and overmuch foftneflfc. 
The more hot promotes indeede the Witt, but is weak and 
^ ^' ^l^"'- tfifling ; and therefore HiMratf fpeaks the t/ifiatiMn peopfc 
Ai^i. tf Loom, j^^h^^ ^^^ Effcniinate, though of a more artificiall and ingenious 
Spirit : If over cold and keen, it too much abates the httt, bat 
renders the body robull and hardy ; as dx>fc who are born under 
the Northern Bearsy are more fierce 8c (tupid, cauftd by a certain 
internal ^miperifi^s and univerfal Impiilfion. The drier Atr 
is generally the more falutary and healthy, fo it be not too IWcltcry 
and infeited with heat or fuliginous vapours, which if by no 
means a friend to health and Longevity, as Aviun notet of the 
t/£H>ifff)j Tvho feldomc arived to any confiderabk old Age. As 
much to be reproved is the moy^viz,, that wtich is over mix'd 
with ji^iw/w exhalations, equaly perrkious and fufctptible of ptj- 
tteftftion ; notwithftandmg docs it oftner orodncc faire and 
tender sJrins, and fomc latt along while in it j bot oommonly not 
fo healthy, as in vfrr which is more dry. Bvt the impure and 
VHpttoni^ m that which proceedcs ftcm ftagnatedplacis, is of all 
other, die moft vik and Peftilcnt. 


Tk SmosSk of London Mfi^d, I 

Noir,tiut through aU tilde direffiiiQg of c^<r, MamHomi. 
nun do Corf iris temferamentum Sequi^ is for the ^eater part fo 
tne an abiervadoo, ihat^t Vohime of Zstiaacamigfat bt produ- 
ced, \£ the Common aadca did not fiilficMotly conhnne it even 
to a Proverb. The Aer oiTwhich we continually prey, perpetually 
inipiring matter to the -*<«««4* and TiV^lf Spirits, bywhicbthey 
become more or IciTe obfufcated, clowded and render'd obno- 
xious i and therefore that Prince of Phyfitians HIpf^crMtis, wittily 
calls I finccrc and pure -/<«•, The Intgrnutus and Imir^er of ^^^^ 
frtihnce. The celet^all influexKcs beii^ fo much reurdcd or *' 
afljfted , and improv'd through this omniprcfcnt, and as it were, 
univerfal MfHum - For, though the j4n in its fimple fubftance 
cannot be vitiated ; yet, in iei prime qualities it liiffers thefe infi- 
nite muutions, bodi from fnperiour and inferiour Cauies, fo as its 
accidental! etfe^ become almoft innumerable ; 

Let it be farther confider'd, what is moft evident, That the 
Body feedes upon Merits commonly bdt at certain periods and 
ftated times, be it twice a day or oftner j whereas, upon the Aer, 
or what accompanies it ( tficm'm in iffo Acre occult m vita eihu ) 
it is allwaies preying (leeping> or waking ; and therefore, doubt- 
leife the deaion of this conilant and alftduous Food , (hould 
fomething conceme us, I affirme, more then even the very Meat 
W€ eat, whereof fo little and indifferent nouri(hes and (atisfies 
the moft temperate and beft Educated pcrfons. Befidcs, Acr that 
is corrupt inhnuates it felf into the vital parts immedatdy ; 
whereas the meats which we take thou^ never fo ill condition d, 
require time for the concodion, by which its eflfiaite are greatly 
miogated; whereas the other, p^ng fo fpeedily to the Lungs, 
and virtually to the hkartitfclf, is deriv'd and communicated 
over ihe whole malTe : In a word, as tlie Lucid and noble Aety 
clarifies the Blood, fubtilizes and zy^cizi it, checrii^ the Spirits 
and promoting digeftion ; fo tlie dark , and ^roffe (on the Con- 
trary ) perturbs the Body, prohibits neccflfary Tranfpiration for 
the refc^ution and dilFipation of ill Vapours, even to difhirbance 
of the very Rational faculties, which the purer Aer docs fo far il- 
luminate, as to have rendred fome Men healthy and wife even to 
Miracle. And therefore the Empoyfoning of o//<r, was ever 
cftcem'd no leffe fiitall then the poyfonin^ of Water or Meate it 
fdf, and foiborn even amon^ft Bartarians ; fince ( as is faid ) 
fuch Infe^ions become more apt to infimiate thcinfelvcs and 

B z betray 

4 F U M J FUG lU MiOt^ 

betray the very SpiritJ, to which they have fo necr a cognation. 
Some Aen we know arc held to be Alexifharmde and even de- 
leterious to Poyfon it felf, as 'tis reported of that o( Inland : In 
fome we finde C^cMJfes will hardly putrifie, m others again tot 
and fall to pieces immediately. 

From theie, or the like confiderations therefore, it might well 

proceed, that yUruvltn^ and the relt who follow that Mafttr- 

lib. I. cat. I. ^'"'^^> mention it as a Principle, for the accomplifliment of 

their t/^rchltc^ , that being skilful! in the Art of Phjjick.y a- 

mongft other Obiervations, he feduloufly examine the Aer and 

Situation of die places where he defigns to build, the Inclinations 

Atrts locorum. <^f the Heavens, and the Cli mats ; Sine hi^ enim rationikm huUm 

' faluh-ii halfitatio fieri fotefi : there is no dwellin* can be fafc or 

healdiy without it. '1 is true, he does likewiie aokle fVater alio, 

which is but a kinde of condenfed e//rr; thouch he might have 

obferv'd, that Element to be feldome bad, where the other is 

good ; omitting onely fome peculiar Fountains and Mifuralwst- 

ters, which are percolated through Mines and Metaiifte Earths 

lefs frequent, ana very rarely to be encounter'd. 

Now whether thofe who were the Antient Founders of our 
goodly Metropolis, had confidered thefe particulars ( thoujgh long 
before ^/rr«rt/;V«j I can no waies douDtor make queftion of; 
fince having refpe«ft to the noblenefs of the fituadon of London, 
we fhall every way finde it to have been confulted with all ima- 
ginable Advantages, not onely in relation to Profit, but to Health 
and Pleafure ; and that, if there be any thing which feems to im- 
peach the two laft Tranfcendencies, it will be found to be but 
fomething Extrinfecal and Accidental onely, which naturally does 
not concern the Place at all ; but, which may very eafily be re- 
formed, without any the leall inconvenience, as in due time we 
fhall come to demonftrate. 

For firll, the City of London isbuiltuponafweetandmott 
agreeable Eminency of Ground, at the North- iide of a goodly 
and well-condition'd River, towards which it hath an Afped^ by 
a gentle and eafie declivity, apt to be improv'd to all that nuy 
rend.^r her Palaces, Bmldings, and Avenues ufefuU, graceful! and 
moll magnificent : The Fumes which exhale from the Waters 
and lower Grounds lying South-ward , by which means they are 
perpetually attradW, carried oflf or dillii>ated by the Sun, as foon 
as they are bom and afccnd. 


rhi Smoak #/ London dipf^td, 5 

Addc to this, that the Soil is univcrfally Gravell, not oiuly 
where the City it fclf is placed ; but for fevcrall Miles about 
the Countreys which environ it : That it is plentifully and richly 
irrigated, and vifued with Waters which Chrilhlizc her Foun- 
tains in every Street, and nuy be conduced to them in (uch far- 
ther plenty, as %fm€ her felf might not more abound in this liquid 
ornament, for the plealurc and divertiiement, as well as for the 
ufe and refreihment of her Inhabitants. I forbear to enlarge upon 
the reU of the convcnicncics which this Augult and Opulent City 
enjoies both by Sea and Land, to accumuUre her Encomiumsy and 
render her the moft conliderable that the Earth has (tanding up- 
on her ample bofome ; became, it belongs to the Otmot and tne 
Poety andisooneof my IniHtunon : But I will infer, thatiftbs 
goodly City juiUy duUei^ what is her due, and ments all that 
can be did to reinforce her Praiies, and five her Titk ; (Vie is to 
be rdicv'd from that which renders h:r lei's healthy, really of- 
fcivb her, and which darkens and eclipfes all her other Artnbutcs. 
And what is all thu, but that Hcllil'h and difmall Cloud of S h A- 
COAL? which is not ondy perpetually imm*ncnt over her 
bead. For as the Poet, 

Ccnduur In tcnehru altttm cdlijf^ine Calum.. , fMtd. 1 1. 

but fo univcrully m'xcd with the o(}»ert\iie wholiomc and ex- 
cellent Aer^ that her Jnhahitams breathe ly'thire: but an impure 
and chick MiO accompinied wirh i fulirjitvx-s and filthy vapour, 
which renders them obnoxious to a thouund inconveniences, 
cornjpting the LungSy and dxiordriig the entire habits ot their Bo- 
dies ; fo that Catharriy Phthifckjy toughs and ( o/ijumptianj rage 
more in this oiw City than in the whole tarth beinies. 

I ihall not here much defcant upon che Nature or Simakjy and 
other Eohalations fmm th-ngs burnt, wh-ch hive obtam'd then 
feverall Epitintes^ accordir^ to the equality of the Matter con- 
fumed , becaufe they arc pcnerallv accounted noxious and un- 
wholibme, and I would not nave it thought, thit 1 doe here Futtut 
venJUrty as the word is, or blot paper with infi^fic.'^t remarks : 
It wasycthiply no inept derivation of that crinVi^, who took 
our EngUjhy or rather, Stxon appellative, from the Grrr^word 
wyL'^X" corrumfc and exuro^ as molt agreeable to its ddhuibve 
cffeds, efpecially of what we doe here fo much declaim againlt, 
fince this is certain, that of all the common and familiar mate- 
rials which emit it, the immoderate ufe of, and indulgence to 

B 3 Sc;»- 

6 fUMlfUGJUM.Oh 

5>4^W# alone in the City of London y expoies it to Of\e of the 
fowlctt Inconveniencicsandreproches , tntt can pofliWy befell 
fo noble , and odierwife > incomparable City : Aiid that , not 
from the Cm^W^ fires , which for being weak, and leife often 
fed bdow , is with liich eafe difpell'd and fcatterr'd above , as 
it is hardly at all dikemtbie, but from fome few particular Tun- 
nells and Iffues , bdonftng only to i^«wr/ , Diers ^ Li/m-hur" 
tursy Saity mASope^ojflers , and fome other private Trades, 
One of whoic Sf'r4(Us alooc , docs manifeftly infefi the A<r , 
more, then all the Chimnies of London put together beiides.' 
And that this is not the leall HyftrUUf , let the beft of Judges 
decide it, which I take to be our lenfes : Whilll thefe are tcI- 
ching it forth their footy jaws , the City of London refembles the 
face rather of Mount ^tna , the Cmrt of Vi^can , Stromholi, 
or th^ Subuihs of HeUy then an AlTembly of Rational Creatures, 
and the Imperial feat of our incomparable Monarch. For when 
in all oth^if places the yier is moft Serene and Pure , it is here 
Ecclipfed with fuch a Cloud of Sulphure , as the Sun it fcif , 
which gives day to all the World befides , is hardly able to pene- 
trate and impart it here j and the weary Traveller , at many 
Miles diitance , fooner fmells , then fees the City to which he 
repairs. TUs is that pernicious Smoake which i'ullyes all her 
Glory , ^>erinducin^ a footy Cruft or furr upon all that it 
lights, fpoyling the moveables, tamiiliing the Plate Gildings 
and Furniture , and corrodii^ the very Iron-bars and hardert 
fk>iies with tbofc piercing and acrimonious Spirits which accom- 
pany its Sulphure ; and executii^ more in one year, tbenexpos'd 
to the pure jier of the Country it could eflFvi<ft in lome hmxtreds. 

Claud, it rap. ■ ■ ^ t'tceatjn* gravatum 

fnf.l. I . Foeddt nube diem ; 

It is this horrid Smoake which obfcures our Churches , and 
makes our Palaces look old , which fouls our Clothe, and cor- 
rupts the Waters , fo as the very Rain , and refrcfhing Dews 
which fall in the feveral Seafons , precipitate this impure vapour , 
which , with its bhck and tenacious quality , fpots and contam- 
inates whatforver is cxpos'd to it. 
Owi. ■ ' — Calidofu Invotvititr undicjHo fumo. 

It is this which fcatters and ftrcws about thofc black and fmatty 
^tomei upon all things where it comes > infinuating it fclf into 
our very fecret CalinetSy and moil precions Ropejkories : Finally, 


Tkc Smoakc of London dififated. 

it is this which diffufes and fpi^ads i Ycllownefle upon our choy- 
ceft Pi^ures and Hangings : which does this mirchicf at home • 
is Avtrntu to Favtl , aud kills our B«es and FUw€rs abroad, fuf- 
fcring nothing in our Garden* to bud , difplay thcmfelves , or 
ripen ; fo as our Antimn'tei and mjny other choyceft Flowers,will 
by no Indullry be made to blow in LonJion^ or tne Precinds of it 
unlc(fe they be raifed on a Htt-hci , and govern'd with extraor- 
dinary Artifice to accellerate their fpringing , impartin<» a bitter 
and ungrateful Taft to thole few wretched Fruits , which never 
arriving to their defired maturity, (eem , like the A^^les of 
Sohme , to fall even to dull , when they are but touchvid. Not 
therefore to be forgotten , is that which was by many obferv'd 
that in the year when yvr/w-f/j//^ was befieg'd and blocked up m 
our late Wars , to as through the great D;:arth and Scarcity of 
Co.ilcs, thofe fumous Works many of them were either left off, 
or fpent but f^w Coales in comparison to what they now ufe : Di- 
vers Gardens and Orchards planted even in the very heart of 
L«H(hn , ( as in particular my Lord Marqueffc of Hert fords in 
the Strand , my Lord Bridgewaters , and fome others about Bar- 
In can) were obferved to bear fuch plentiful and infinite quanti- 
ties of Fruits , as they never produced the like either before or 
f^nce , to their ^reat ailonilliment: bi-t it wis by the Owners 
rightly im.puted to the penury of Co.iles , and the little Smoake , 
which they took notice to infdl them year : For there is a 
virtue in the Arr , to penetrate , alter , nouriih , yea and to 
multiply Plants and Fruits, without which no vegetable could 
pofTibly thrive ; but as the Poet. 

Aret ager : vitio martens fit'.t atrit htrha . Geori- 7. 

So as it was not ill faid by Paracelfuf, that of all things, Aer 
only could be truly affirm'd to have L/f^ , feehig to all things it 
gave Life. Argument fufficient to demonftrate, ho\v prcjucficial 
It is to the Bodies of men ; for that can never be Aer fit for them 
to breath in , where nor Frw'ts , nor Fhrvcrs do ripen , or come 
to a feafonablc perfe<ftion. 

I have ftrangcly wondred , and not without fome juft indigna- 
tion , when the South-wind has been gently breathing , to ha\'e 
fometimes beheld that rtately Houfe and Garden belonging to my 
Lord of Ntrthrnnhtrland , even as far as JVhite-hall and Af>/?- 
mififieTj wrapped in a horrid Cloud of this Smoake, iffuingfrom 
a BrcjV'h<n*fc or two contiguous to that noble Palace : fo as com- 


g jfUMIFUGlUMiOty 

ing up the Rivef, thacptrc of cbe City hgs sippeatd a Sea where 
no Land was mthin kai ; the (ame frequendy ba|)penf from t 
•idocaffeot l^irru'kslm* on thtBarki-frLn&it thi PaUon, which wheD Ae 
ihwkothi4)TM Wind blowcf Southern , dilatei it felf all over that Pojmcof 
& Sulphur ate thz Thames, and the oppoAte part of Lctfion^ eTpecialljr about 
in fooM atfc 5, paul\ poyfoniflg th^ Aer with fo dark and thick a Foe, as I 
ak>mrpecifie« ^^^ been hardly able to pa£l throu^ it, for the ectraordinary 
WtiirSly ftench and halltm it fenck forth ; and the like ii neer F<acMl 
at« to be (o at the farther end oiLanhtb. 
prepared 1 zt 

nothing rave the pareft pare be received isco the body ( for fo Phjrficbns prefer 'be flerst 
fuJfh. ftcl and net accompanied with fuch |roG and plain y virukiit vapours^ at thefe ftics 
fend foith: Net are chey (as accurately prcpat'd ai An cmi recder thun ) » be peif e- 
tujdly afed, btic at ceicain pcrtods, in Focma, and with due fUgimenc 

Now to wiut fiineft and deadly Acddencs the aflldaous inva- 
fion of this Smoak exposes the numerouf iDhabitaocs, Ihaveal- 
rCKly touch'd, whatfoever fome lave fondly pretended, not an- 
fiderir^ that the cooftant ulie of the (ame JUr Ok it never fo im- 
pure) may be condftent with lifie and a Valetuainary ftate ; dpe- 
dally, if the Place be native to us, and that we have never lived 
for any long time out of it ; Cufiome, in this, as in all tfcii^ eUe, 
obtaining another Nature, and all Putrefa^on, proceeding from 
certain Changes, it becomes, as it were, the F«ni», and Perfe^- 
on of that which is contain'd in it : For fo ( to (ay nodiii^ of (uch 
as by alTuefa^on have made the rankeft poyfons their moft fa- 
miliar Diet) we read that Epimemdts condnu'd fifty years in a 
damp Cave-t the Eremites dwelt in Dens, and divers live now in 
the Fens ; fome are condcmn'd to the Mines ^ and others, that 
are perpetually convcrfant about the Forges^ Ftrnaces of Iron 
and other Smoaky Works, are little concern'd with thcfe trou- 
blefome accidents : But as it is not (I pcrfwade my felf ) out of 
cboyce , that thefe Men affed them; fo nor will any man, I think, 
commend and celebrate their manner of Living. A Tahii Body 
might pofTibly trail out a miferable life of fevenor eight years by 
a Se^cole Fire , as 'tis reported the H^tfe of a ccruin famous 
PhjJtciMH , did of late by thi Prefcription of her Husband ; but 
it IS to be confidercd alfo , how much longer , and happier (he 
mi^ht have furvived in a better and more noble Aer j and that 
old Par , who lived in health to an Hundred and fifty years of 
Age , was not fo much concern'd with the change of Diet ( as 


T^ Sificake of London Mpfated, 9 

fomehaveaninn'cl) as with that of thc-«4rr, which plainly wU 
ther*d him , abd (poyl'd his Digdtion in a Lhort time after his ar- 
rival at LomdoM, 

There is , I confcflc , a certain liUfyncrdfA in the Compo^ 
fition of fome perfons , which may fit and diipofe them to thnve 
better in fome Aers , then in other : But , it is manifett , that 
thofc who repair to L*«i<(7» , no fooner enter into it, but they 
find a univerfal alteration in their Bodies , which are either dr) cd 
up or enflam'd , the humours being exafperated and made apt 10 
putrifie , their fenfories and f erfpiration fo exceedingly Itopp'd , 
with the lofle of Appetite , and a kind of general Itupefattion , 
fucceeded with fuchC^rWj and DlftilLuions ^ as do never, or 
very rarely quit them , without fome further Svmptomes of dan- 
gerous Inconveniency fo long as they abide in th«: place ; which 
yet are immedijtdy rertored to their foraier habit, fo foon as 
they are retired to their Homes and enjoy the frefh Aer again. 
And here 1 may not omit to mention what a moft Learned Thy- Dr. lybi^Ur, 
fid an and one of die ColUige afliir'd me , as I remember of a 
Friend of his , who hadfoltrange an AntlfMthy to the Aer of 
London : that though he were a Merchant , and had frequent bu- 
fineffe in the City, was yet conllramed to make his Dwelling fome 
miles without it ; and when he came to the Exchange^ within an 
hour or nvo , grew fo extremely indifpos't^ , that (as if out of his 
proper Element ) he was forced to take hone ( which us'd there- 
fore conftantly to attend him at die Entrance ) and ride as for his 
Life , till he came into the Fields , and was returning home 
again, which is an Inftance fo extraordinary, as not, it may be, to 
be paralell'd in any place of Enrofe , fave the Grotto del Cane , 
nere NofUs^thz Os PlMonlum of SilvitUy or Tome (uchfi*lfterra- 
nean habitation. For Difeafcs proceed not from To long a Series 
of caufes , as we are apt to conceive ; but , molt times from 
thofe obvious , and defpicable mifchiefs , which yet we take lefle 
notice of, becaufe rhey are familiar ; But how frequently do we 
hear men fay (fpeakingof fome deceafed Neighbour or Friend ) 
He went Hp to London y and took^a great Cold , &c. which Ac 
could never afterwards claw off again. 

I report my felf to all thofe who ( during thefe fad confuhons ) 
have been compelled to breath the Jer of other Countries for 
fome years ; if they do not now perceive a manifeft alteration in 
\)[\i\i Anetite ^ and cleameife of their Spirits; efpecially fuch 

C as 



as have liv'd long in Frsmee , and the Gty of Parui where , to 
take o£f that unjuii reproch , the Plague as Tddotue domineers , 
as in any part of Eargfi^ which I more imptte to the Serenity 
and Purity of the ^er atiout it, then to any other qualities which 
are freCjUontly ailign'd for the caufc of it by divers Writers. But 
if it b^ objected that th^ purelt Aers are loondt infe^led ; it is 
aruvvcrcd, that ihey are al.o the foondt freed a^'^in j and that none 
would theretorc choose to live in a corrupt Aer , bccaufc of thif 
ArticL : London 'tis confels'd is not the only Cit> molt obnotdous 
to the Pdhlencc j but it is yet never dear of th;$ Smoakc which 
is a Plague 10 nuny other ways , and indeed intolerable ; becaufe 
it kills rtoc at once ^t always, ftnce llill to lai^iih, is worfe 
then even Death it (elf. For is there under Heaven fuch Ctnghimg 
and Siujfng to be heard, as in the Lonelan Churches and AiTemlies 
of People, where the barking and the Spitting is unceilant and 
mo ; importurute. What ihall I (ay ? 

turos. HiMc hotmnum pefuJumqm L^s.— 

And whjt nuy be th: caufe of thefe trouble.ome etfe^ , but the 
inTpi ration of this infciul vapour, accomponing the^/r,wfaich 
firft heats and ollicits the Affera t/irterla^ through one of whofe 
Conduits, partly Cartilaglnouty and partly memirawus ^ it 
enters by leveral branches into the very Parenchyma , and fub- 
ftance of the Lungs , violating , in tiiis paftigc, the Larymx and 
£ fight th^ tofcthjr with thofc multfonnand curious Mufclcs , 
the immediate an H proper Inftrumcnts of the f^ofce , which be- 
coming rough andarye, can neither be contraaed , '^r dilated 
for the dae raodilation of the Voyce ; fo as by fomc of my 
F.iends^dudious in M/tfick^^ind whereof one isa I>>5lor of Phy- 
fick ) it his been conftantly oblerv'd , that coming out of tne 
Q^mntTj into Lot$d0n , thev \(A\ 1 hree whole Notes in the COOI- 
pofle of their Voice , which they never recover'd again till their 

. . retreat ; Adeo enim AnlmaHtes ( to ufe the Orators words ) afpi- 

ratltme AerisfHfilnentur , tpfe^ t^er no^fcum videtj rubifcum 
Mudit y nohifcHm fomat : In fumme, we perform nothing without 

Wh^the-- the Head and the Brain ( as fome have imagined ) take 
in th -• nmbient Aer^ nay the very Arteries throuf.h the skin uni- 
verfnlly over the whole body, is greailv controverted ; But if fo, 
of whit confequence the goodneife and purity of the Aer is, will 
to every one appear : Sure we are , how much the Refpiration is 



The Smoak of LondoA Mfipdttii. 1 1 

pertufb'd , and cooccm'd , when the Lnȣs are prepoffeffed 
with thcfc grofTc and denfc vapours , brought along in the jifr ; 
which on tfic other fide being pure and fitly qualified , and lb con- 
da^tcd to them , is there commixed with thi circulating blood , 
infinuating it felf into the left ventricle of the heart by the Arte- 
rU Kenofd , to rarifie and fubtilize that precious vehicle of the 
Spirits and vital flame : The Vens Arterlofa^ and Arterid Veno- 
yidirpofingthemfelves into many branches through the Pulmo- 
nique Lo\fcs^ioi its Convoy the Aer (as we rayd)beuig firrt brought 
into them out of the Bronchia (togedier with the returning blood) 
to the very Heart it felf ; fo as we are not at all to wonder , at 
the fuddain and prodigious Efteds of a poyibious or lelfe whclc- 
fome Aer , when it comes to invade fuch noble Parts , Vej[eJS,s , 
Spirits ind Humottrsy as it vifits and attaques, through thofe 
fubtile and cur:ous paflages. But this is not all. 

What if there appear to be an Arfemcal vapour , as well as 
Smlphur , breathing fomerimcs from this intemperate ufe of Sea- 
Cole , in great Cities ? That there is , what does plainly ftupifie, 
is evident to thofe who fit long by it ; and that which fortun'd to 
the Dmehmen who Winter'd in NafVM Zem\?U , was by all Phj- 
ficians attributed to fuch a deleterious quality in thi like fuell, as 
well as to the Infpil&tion of the (v^rr , which they thought only 
to have attemper'd, as is by molt dkem'd to be the rcafon of the 
fame dangerous halitm of Char-Cole , not fully enkcndl'd. But 
to come necrer yet. 

Vjw Cajole Cole , as an expert Phjjicidn affirms, caufeth Coh- g^^ .^^ ^ ^^^^ 
fmnftions y Phth'fickj t and the Iwfifpofition of xhz Lungs ^ not 
only by the fuffocatin" aboundance of Srmake ; but alfo by its 
f^irmlencj/ : For all fttbterrany Fuell hath a kind of virulent or 
Arfemcal vapour riling from it ; which , as it fpeedily de- 
ftroys thofe who dig it in the CMines ; fo does it by lit- 
tle and little , thofe who ufe it here above them : Therefore thofe 
Difcafes ( faith th^s Do^or ) moft aflflia about London ^ where 
the very Iron is fooner confum'd by the Smoake thereof , then 
where this Fire is not ufed. 

And, if indeed there be fuch a Venemous quality latent, and 
fomctimes breathing from this Fuell , we are lefle to trouble our 
fclvesforthefind&iff;outof the Caufe of thofe Pejiilential and 
Efidrmicai Sickneflcs ( Efidemiorum Canfa emm in tyiere^ fays 
Golem ) which at divers periods , have fo terribly infeited aod 
wafted US: or, that it (hould be fo fufcq)tible of infei^ion, all 

C a manner 

IZ F U H I f UG lU MlOu 

manner of Difcafcs having fo univerfal a vehicle as is that of the 
Smoaks , which perpetually invefts this City : But this is alio no- 
Difcoitrft of (etiby the Learned Sir Kentlm* "Dlgir/ , in confirmation of the 
^uwdv' Doarine of Atomical £j(|!i«'/4's and Emanations, wafted, mix- 

ed and communicated by the Aer , where he well obfcrves, that 
from ih: Materials of our London Fires, there refults a great 
quantity of volatile baits , which being very iharp and dilFipated 
byiheSmoake5 doth infeit the ^rr, and lo incorporate with it, 
that , though the very Bodies of thofe corrofive particles efcape 
our perception , yet we foon find their effe<Sls, by the deftrudion 
which they induce upon all ihinos that they do but touch; Ipoylin^, 
and dcftroying their beaudful colours, with their fuliginous quali- 
ties : Yea, though a Chamber b;; never fo clofely locked up, 
Men find at their return , all things thit are in it, even covered 
with a black thin Soot , and all the rell of ih: Furniture as full of 
it , as if it were in the houfe of fome MlUer , or a Bukers ihop, 
wh:re the Flower gets into their Cupkoards , and Boxes , though 
never fo clofe and accurately (hut. 

This Coale , fays Sir K. flies abroad, fowling the Clothes that 
are expos'd a drying upon the Hedges ; and in the Spring-time (as 
but now we mention d) befoots all the Leaves , fo as there is 
nothing free from its univerfal contamination , and it is for this, 
that the Bleachers about Harluem p'ohibit by an exprefs Law (as 
] am told ) the ufe of .thefe Coles , for fome Miles about that 
Town ; and how curious the Diers and Weavers of DammMk^y 
and other precious Silks are at Florence , of the leaft ingrefle of 
any Smoaky vapour , whilll their Loomes are at work , I fhall 
iTiew upon fome other occafion : But in the mean time being thus 
incorporatedwith the very ^rr , which miniikrs to the necef- 
lary refpirationof our Lungs, x\)& Inhabit ants of London ^ and 
iiich as frequent it , find it in all their Exfc^eratfns j the Spit- 
tle , and other excrem.'nts which proceed from them , being for 
the moft part of a blackiiK and fuliginous Colour : Befides this 
acrimonious Soot produces another fad effect, by rendring the 
people obnoxious to Inflammations , and comes ( in time ) to 
exulcsiratc the Lungs , which is a mifchief fo incurable , that it 
carries away multitudes by Languifliing and deep Ctnfnmftioar , 
as the BlUsof Mortality 60 Wtckiy inform us. And thefe arc 
tbofe Endtmii Morbi, vernaculous and proper to Lombn. So cor- 
rofive is this S/maks about thi City , that if one would hang up 


TbiSmoakrfLoQdoacU/ipate/. 15 

Gummtiu of Bmcm , Betft , or other Fleih to fume , ami pre- 
pare it in the Chimnics , as the good Htttfe-fVifes cio in the 
Countrjr , where they maki ufe of fweeter Fuell , it will fo 
Mttmmific , drye up , waft and bum it , that it fuddainly crum- 
bles away , conTumis and comes to nothing. 

The Confsquences th^n of ail this is , that ( as was faid ) al- 
mort oni half of them who ceriih in London , dye of Phthifcal 
and fitlmoMc dilkmpersj That the Inhak'tams are never 
free from Coughs and importunate Bhettmanfms y fpitting of 
ImpofitMMted and corrupt matter : for remedy whereof, there 
is none fo infallible , as that , in time , the Patient change 
his Jer , and remove into the Country .- Such as repair to Pa- 
ru ( where it is excellent ) and other like Places , perfe^ly re- 
covering of their health; which is a demonihation fufiTcient to 
confirm what we have aflerted , concerning the pernicioulhifre of 
that about this City , produc'd only , from this exitial and in- 
tolerable Accident. 

But 1 hear it now objeiled by fome , that in publilhing this 
Inveilive againft the Smoake of London , I hazard the engaging 
of a whole Fdculty againft me , and particularly , that the Co/- 
led^e of PhjJicUns Q^cmitnth&n prefervati on againft Ihfed- 
ions , then otherwife any caufe of the fad effcds which I have 
enumerated. But , as I have upon feveral encounters , found 
the moft able , and Leamed amongft them, to renounce this opi- 
nio 1, and heartily Willi for a iiniverfal purgation of the Aer by 
the expedient? I propofe ; fo , I cannot believe that any of that 
Learned Society , il.ouldih'nkthemrelvesfo far concern 'd, as 
to be offended with me for that , which ( as well for their fakes , 
as the reft who derive b:nefit from it ) I willi were at farther 
diftance ; fince it is certain , tiiat fo many of their 'Patients are 
drivenaway from th* City , tpon the leaft indifpofition which 
atlaques them, on this fole confideration ; as efteeming it Icffc 
dangerous to put themfelves into the hands of fome Country 
Doaor or Emfcric , then to abide the Aer of London , with all 
its other advantages. For the reft , tharpretend to that honoura- 
ble ProfeiTion ; if any ftiall find themfelves agreev'd and thirk 
good to contend , I iTiall eafily allow him as much Smoake as he 
defires, and much good may it do him. But, it is to be fufcc- 
£led , and the anfwer is made ( by as many have ever fuggeltcd 
the Obje^Hon to me ) That there be fome whom I muft cxpc^ 


,4 lUMlfUGlUMiOty 

to plead for that , which makes fo much work for the Chlmny 
Sweeper ; Since 1 am fecure of the Learned and Ingenuous , and 
whole Fortunes are not built on Smoake , or raifed by a univerfal 
Calamity; fuchasi elteemtobc tb& Nmfances ^ 1 have here re- 
proved : I do not hince infer , that I (hall be any way impatient 
of a juft and civil Reply , which I (hall rather elkcm for an ho- 
nour done me , becaufe 1 know , that a witty aud a Learned man 
is able to dilcourfe upon any Subjed whatfoever ; fome of them 
having with praife, written even of thepraifeof Difcafts rhtm-* 
felvcs , for fo FavoritiM of old , and MeHAfins fince commen- 
ded a QttMrtdn Ague , Firckjjemlerste the Gottt , Gmherim cele- 
brated £li»dnejff , HienjiM the Loufe , and to come nearer our 
Theam , Majcragim the nafty Dirt ; Not I fuppofc that they 
• DewuuriU affeiteddTefepleafant things, but as * u4. GtUlm has it extrcendi 
^Mi^dAiZ^^'^^''' and to (hew their Wits; for as the P<»^f , 
gppeUsjtt. ^^"^ "^"•** Mmjis fmt Indicra , mlfta CAmtnU 

Noct.Jtt.L.i7 Otlafuut : - 

c. X ». But to proceed, I do farther affirm , that it is not the duft and 

Ordure which is daily call out of their Hoofes , much leffe what 
is brought in by the Feet of Men and Horfesjor the want of more 
frc<iuent and better conveyances , which renders the Streets of 
London dirty even to a Trover If. but chiefly this continual Smoake^ 
which afcending in the day- time, is, by the defcending Dew , and 
Cold4)recipitated again at night : Ana this is manifeft, if a peice 
of clean Linnen be fpread all Night in any Court or Garden , the 
leaft infef^ed as to appearance ; but efpecially if it happen to rain, 
which carries it down in greater proportion, not only upon the 
Earth, but upon the w^^r^r alfo , where it leaves a tHn Web , or 
felLlcnU of dull , dancing upon the Surface of it ; as thofe who 
go to bathe in the Thames (though at fome Miles di(lance from 
the City) do eaiily difcem and brin^ home upon their Bodies: 
How it (Vicks on the Hands Faces and Linnen of otir fair Ladles , 
and nicer Dames , who refide conftantly in London ( efpecially 
daring Winter^ the prodigious waft o( yilmond-jowder for the 
On4 , Soap ana wearing out of the Other , do fufficienfly mani- 

Let it be confidcred what a Fuliginous cruft is yearly contra- 
^d, and adheres to the Sides of our ordinary Chymnies where 
this groffc Fuell is ufed ; and then imagine , if there were a fotid 
Temwrttm , or Canopy over Lomhn , what a maflc of Soote 


The SmotJce cf Londoo difiifaed. jy 

Tvould then (tick to ie, which now (as was faid) comes down 
crcry Night in the 5frfcw , on our //m^it/, the fritters ^ tnd is 
taken into our Bodies. 

And may this much fuflficc concerning the CMtfes and £f#ff/ of 
this Evia , and (o cfifcovcr to all the World , bow pernicious this 
Snuaki is to our Inhalntdnts of Lonitn , to decrie it, and to in> 
troduce fome happy Expedient, whereby they may for the Future, 
hope to be freea from fo intollerablc an inconvenience, if what I 
lliall be able to produce and offer next , may in fome meaiure 
contribute to it. 

Part. II. 

Wi- know ( as the Prtverk commonly fpeaks ) diat , as 
there u r» SmeAks ^i*l»9mr Fire; fo neither is thcr« 
hardly any Fire without Smcake > and that the «»*rr<i Utikm, 
materials which burn clear are very few , and but comparatively 
ib tearmed : Thar to talk of ferving this vaft City ( though Pa^ 
mas great, beio fupplied) with Heed, were machielfej and 
yetdoubtleflfcitwerepolTfcle, that much larger proportions of 
Wood mi^ be brouilht to Laniw , an \ (old at eafier rates , if 
that were diligently c^er^'ed, which both our L^ms enjoyn, h 
faiilble andpraftifed in other places more remote, by Planting 
and preferving of iVoois and (^offes , and by what might by Sea , 
be brought out of ^ Northern Cuentries ^ where it fo greatly 
abounds , and fecms incxhauftible. But the %emeiy which 1 
would propofe, has nothing in it of this difficulty, requiring 
only the Removal of fuch Trades , as arc mtnifeft Nm^MKes t» 
the City, which, I would have placed at farther difhnocs; es- 
pecially , fiich as in thdr Works and Fourmces ufe great craanci - 
ties of Se*-Cele , the fole and only caufie of thofo prodigiouc 
Clouds df Sm»«kiy which fo univerfally and fo facatty inlcft the 
Aer ., and woidd in no City of Emfe be permitted , where Men 
had either rc(pc6^ to Health or Ormmcnt. Such we named to be 
Brewers , Dters , Safe and SMlt-heriers , Limee-k/rtierSy and iIk 
like : Thefe I iffirm , together with fome few others of the fame 
r/ig/r remold at competent diftance, would produce fo cob. 
Hderable ( though but partial ) a Cure , as Men would even be 


j^ p U M J F UG lU Ml Off 

found to breath a new life as it were , as well as Lenion appear a 
new City , delivered from that , which alone renders it one of 
the mod pefnictous and infiipporuble af>odes in the World, as 
fiibjei^i^ her Inhabitants to fo infamous an jifr, otber^ife fweet 
and very oealthfiil : For , ( as we faid ) the CmiinM-y fires ( and 
whchcharkifiiyyoald^fcztlyrefotm) cont.ibute little, or no- 
thino in comparifon to thefe foul mouth'd liTues , and Curies of 
^'^'^' SmoMks , which ( as the Poet has it ) do Ctlum fnkexere fim* , 
and draw a Gible Curtain over Heaven. Let any man obferve it, 
upon a Sunidy , or fuch time as thefe Spiracles ceafe , that the 
Fires are generally cxtinguilhed , and he (hall fenfibly conclude , 
by thedeameffe of thsSkie , and univerlal ferenity of the Aer 
aoout it , tlut all the Chimnies in London , do not darken and 
poyfon it fo much , as one or wo of thofe Tunnels of SmoM^e ; 
and, that, becaufe the moft imperceptible tranftnrations, which 
they fend fordi , are ventilated , and difperfed with the lealt 
breath which is ^rri^g: Whereas the Colnmns and Clowds of 
Sm*aki > which are belched forth from the footy Throates of 
thofe Works, are fo thick and plentifiil , that rufhing out widi 
great impetuofity,they are capable even to refill the fiercdl winds, 
and being extremely furcharg'd with a fuliginous Body, fall down 
upon the City , before they can be dilfipated , as the more thin 
Pfi»7. and weak is j fo as two or three of thctefumldvorticef , are able 
to whirle it about the whole Cit/, rendrin^ it m a few Moments 
like the Pidhire of Troy facked by the Greeks^ or the approches of 

I propofe therefore , diat by an A^ of this prefent Tttrl'm- 
mem , this infernal Timfance be reformed ; enjoyning , that all 
thofe fVorkj be removed five or fix miles diftant from London be- 
low the River of Thdimet ; I Ciy » five or fix Miles , or at the 
leal) fo far as to ftand behind that Promontory jetting out , and 
*Ot trooOtdgt. and fecurii^ C7rw)nriVA * from the peflilent Aer of PbmfteMd. 
MarQies: becauie, beingplacedat any lefTer Interval beneath 
* Memorabilis ^ ^'V* ^^ Would not only prodigioufly infeil that his MdjeJUes 
MmotnitMs fene Royal Seat (induBMrcUy Cil\s\t) fervttnfts Kegwn Britun- 
itha MMsmum nicortun dtmm j but durii^ our nine Months Etefidns ( for fo we 
^JiZih^fltau "^»yi"ftly name our tecfiousWeftem-winds; utterly darken and 
n!» BriSniM coitfound one of the moft princely, and magnificent * Profjxras 
tantum , fed fortsffi tot* Lwroftfulthnrimo, &c Sed fukhefrimum Jpeadcuimfrdbetifft 
itHrj iMter tsimuu iMTfte eelibr*t*>8ic. J§3*r(l. EMfUrJ5tt.f»t.^c.%, 


Tht Smoake of London Mf if died, 1 7 

that the World has to (hew : Whereas , being feated behind that 
Mounuin , and which feems to have been thus induttrioufly ele- 
vated ; No winds , or other accident whatever can force it 
through thatfolidobftacle ; and I am perfwaded , that the heat 
of thefe Works, mixing with the too cold and uliginous vapours 
which peri^tually afcend from thefe Fenny Grounds , might be a 
means of rendring that -^rr far more healdiy then now it is; 
becaufe it feems to ftand in need of fome powerful drier ; but 
which London^ by reafon of its excellent fcia-ation, does not at 
all require : Ancl if it (hall be ob;e6\ed, that the Brakiflineffe of 
the Smrlng-tidesy happening hereabout at fome periods, may ren- 
der tnc Waters leiTeufeful for fomepurpofes : It is an extraor- 
dinary Accident, which appearing rarely is cured again at the re- 
verfion of the next Tide; Or if it only concern the Brtwer y 1 
know no inconveniency,if even fome of them were prefer: b*d,as 
far as any frelh-waters are found diflemboguing into thtlhamts; 
fince the commodioulhefre of the palTage may bring up their 
Wares with fo great eafc : He that confiders what quantities are 
tranfported from Dantx.Ick.y Lubeck^y Hamhorongh , and other 
remote places into HoUani , cannot think this an unreafonablc 
propo(ition : But if their fondnelTe to be nearer Lonion , pro- 
cure indulgence for fome of them , The Town of Bowe , in re- 
gard of its fcituation from our continual Winds may ferve for 
the expedient , and a partial Cure ' But die reft of thofe banilh'd 
to the utmoft extreme propounded on the River. 

At lealt by this means Thoufands of able Watermen may be em- 
ployed in bringing Commodities into tke City, to certain Maga^ 
xAnes & ffJi<rrf>,commodioufly fituated to difpenfe th:m by Cam 
or rather SUdsy into the ievcral parts of ifye Town ; all .which 
may be effeaed with much facility , and fmall expenfe ; but , 
with fuch Conveniency and Benefit to the /w^^^iY ^wf J otherwile , 
as were altogether ineltimable ; and therefore , to be vallu'd be- 
yond all other trifling objeaions of fordid and avaricious perfons 
whatfoever. Nor, indeed, could there at all the left detriment 
enOic upon this Reformation fincc , the Places and Houfes de- 
fcrted ( which commonly take up a great fpace of Ground ) 
might be converted into Tenemtnts , and fome of them into 
NohU Ho$tfes for ufe and pleafure , refpeaing the Thames to 
their no fmall advantage. Add to this, that it would be a means 
to prevent the danger of JiVnW, thofe iad Calamities , for the 
'^ D molt 

1$ ifUMlJFUGlUMiOt^ 

moft part, .proceeding from fomc Accident or other, which 
takes beginning from places, where fuch great and exorbitant Fircf 
are perpetually kept^oing. 

Nor were this a thu^ yet fo extra vagant , and without all Prt^ 
JkUnt of former times ; fmce even the Smo^ and burmi3g of 
lerte foetid and noxious Fuell, produc'd an inconvenience io uoi- 
verfal , in fome ^mntrles of this Matioit : Not to mention the 
complaint which 1 have heard fome parts even of France it fclf 
lying Softth wejt of Sngltrnd , did formerly make of bein^ infef- 
ted with Smoakes driven from our ^4r»ViW Coafts , which in- 
jur 'd their Vines in Fltwtr , that it was thought expecfient an 
e//ff of ParllofmHt fhould be made purpofely to reform it in 
the feventh year of the Reign of His Majefiiti Grandfather that 
now is, which, to take otf all prejudice , I Qiall here recite , as 
it remains upon Record. 

Anno vij. Jacobi Regis. 

An A<^ againft burning of Ling, and Heath, 
and other Moor-burning in the Counties 
oiTorks, Durham^ NorthHtftberlandy Cumber' 
landy IVe^merlaitdy Lancafter^ Darbie^ Not- 
tifigbamy & LeicefUr^ at nnfeafonablc times 
of the year. 

WHercas, ttuitp 3!Qcottt)(maine<e( ait obftr^ 
teDtoliapiieiim lx\i^x% ConntiejBt cf i\f$ 
iftealm , \p^ iS^am^^^xaxM , atiH Up tat- 

gpountanwittJ CemitiCe? , totimwna^Jf Ling, 

Heath, Hathtr, Forres, Gorfle, Tmfe, Peamt 

WhiMM, Broom, an^fljelftefeCtifte^jpnngrtme, 


The Smoak $f London MpfAud. x 9 

Wiid-fowie, anD <apoo|e=Qame , mx^tv tt)e mul= 

titUDeof groile vapours , anDC10UD<B( aufitlj (tOtlt 
t^Ofe great jftre0 9 t^ Aer is fo diftemperd) atiD 
fUC^unfeafooable atlD unnatural ftorms ate tngenDteD^ 

a0t^attl)eCorn9 anDtl)eFruites of the battb ate 
r^et^inmt)et$placejB( biafied, ant) greatly ^n= 
^eret) in tbett Xmz coutfe of ripening anD reaping. 
%% aifo 7 to; r^at lomecime:9i it l)at!^ b^ppeneD* t^at 
bv tbebioletice ot tbcfe f ttei8(iutbcn Untb V^ 92limb) 
great ifielbst of Coitn gro\»ttig , b^^^ ^^ (c^^^^ 
meb , anb !3l^abot»0 fpopro, to tbe great burt anb 
bammage oe n^x^ i^aieote^ ftubiectist ; bob^cb 
^00; butningsi > nebertbelede > mav beu&b, anb 
piactiCcbatfomeotber conbcnient tinted ? untbouc 
fiicb eminent banger or p^eiutice* 

is>t it tberefo?e Cnacteb b? our feoberaign )to;b 
tb« Kings moft ercellent Majcfty , tuitb t^ affent of 
tbe 7lo?b$ i^pirttiial anb 'Ccmpo^ai > anb of tbe 
Common)e( in tbiJ^ Parliament adcmbleb , anb b^ tbe 
3lutbo?ity of tbe fame •, Cbat from , anb after tbe 
laft bay of July nert cnfuing tbe t\\\^ of tW p^efent 
S^efftonof Parliament, It Ojall not be laU)ful to? any 
l&erfonolt ^erfonsJ mbatfoeber m ti)e ^cntb3 cf 

April, May, June, July, Auguft, anbSepceir.b^r, 

nojinanyof tbem, to taife, binble, 02 begin; 02 
tocaufeo^ptactifetobe raifeb, Umbicb, oz begun 
anp ifirejBl o| i9l9oo|i=butning!5 in tbe faib Counties 

of York, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Weftmorland, Lancafter , Darby , Nottingham, anb 

Lciceftcr, ojt in an? of tbem, fojbutning of Lmg , 

Heath , Hather , Furs, GoriTe, Turffes , Fe2rnr , 
VVhinnes, Broome 02 tbe M^t; nettt)er tO aCufl", 

f uttl^er, nourift 0? continue tl)e fame ; 3[inb tt]at all 

C 2 anb 

20 F U M I F U G 1 U Ml Or, 

auDd^erp )ierroo anD 0et(on£(, tx)l)ic^ from anD 
after itiefaiDlaft Dap ot July, (^aUoSenD contract 
to t^e true intent^ anH meaning; of tW Statute, 
tl)e fame offence being p?ot)eD by conffffton of Uijz 
i^avtp 9 0^ bp t^e ^ed imonirs( of mo fufficient 
imiicneac0 upon £>m ' before one o^ mo^e 3nfiitt$ 
of t^e peace of t^ fame dountp , Citp, oz^obon 
Corporate) ts^et^oSence Q^all be comnutteb; 
02 tne perron oz {^(on^l^Senbm^) appzcl^nbeb , 
(^all be bp tl)e faiD JuCtice^ oz JuOtce^ of tbe peace, 
fo^etetpfuc^ oSrnce? ccmmineb to t^e Common 
(0oaleof tbeCountp? dtp, o;<Cotx)n Co?po;aee, 
U)^ete tl)e iDfi^ence C^all be commitceb , o; t^e petfon 
0} ptrfon^ app^et;enbeb. tbere to remain fo; t^ fpace 
cf one i9^ontb boit^ut :E3ail oz i^ain p^ife. 

And iurther, be It Cnaaeb) bp tl^ 31Ut^^tP 

afoiefaib, t^t all? anb eberp perfon anH perfon^) 
t)ol)icb f^U be fo conbicteb anD imp^oneb ajei 
af o?(faib, C^ali not be mlargeb from tl^ir faib Jnt' 
pzifonmcnt; but G^all tbere remam af<(r tl^e faiD 
0^ontt)i)Q(ejcpireb, tuitbout I3ail o^ jS^ain^piife , 
unttU fucb time a$ eberp fuct) €>ffenbo; terpectibelp 
O^allpap) oitcaufetobepaibto ttie C^urc^^Mlar- 
bfn0 , ot unto tl^ iDberreerjet of tt)e poor of tl)e 
t^ariO), outplace) b?^erec))erame€)Sence(l)aUbe 
committeb, oz tbe i^ffenber oz ^Senberist app^tei^^ 
beb) oz unto feme of t^rm? totl)e ufe of tbe poo; 
of tbe faib panlb oz place , b^ere t\jit fame j^eqce 
Q)aUbeccmmitteb, tl)ei&ummeof trboentpii^bi^ 
lingjBf, f 0? eberp fuc^ £Dffence committeb o? bonr,con= 
trarp no tl]i0 M. ^l^isi Aa to continue umil ti)e 
enb of tbefirftft^efCionof t^-nett Parliament. 

So far the yiS. And here you fee wjs cire taken foi the Fowl 
and tb^ Game , as well as for the Fruits y Corn , and GrAJft-t 
which wcu uwverfally incoaijnodcd by. thsfc unwbolfome "v^- 


Tbi Smoak of Loadoo dififiutd. 2 1 

^s , that ciiftcmpeKd the Ae ,to the very liifingof Stormi and 
f empdls J upon which a Phihfofhtr might amply difcourfe. And ^i*ttbm & 
if luch care was taken for the Country , vvh^re the more Aereall Gtl i.ctb. hm 
parts predominate , and are in compariion free ^ how much grea- ^ miUfufci» 
ter ought there to be for the Oty , where are fuch Mulntudes of ^^^wa- 
Lihabitants concern'd ? Andiurelyit was ib of old, when (to tcr'^^yfond 
objei^ all that can be replied againll it) even for the very Ser- ^jiiiAer. 
vice of God , the Sacrifices were to be burnt without the Campi 
amongft the Jem; as ( of old) amonglt the Romans ^ Homi- 
nemm^rtHnmlnurbe tufefelitt ^ nevt /trite. That Menlhould 
burn,or bury the Dead within the City Walls,wasexprefly prolu- 
bited by a Law of the XI I. Tdl^es ; and truely, I am perfwaded, 
that the freauency of Ch rrch-jMrds , and Charnel-Honfes con- 
tamminate the t/(er , in many parts of this Town , as well as 
the P<»«^/ and Waters , which are any thing near unto them, 
io tint thoic Plfes and Conveyances wiiich pafle through them 
(obnoxious to many dangerous accidents ) ought either to be di- 
red>;d fome odier way , or very carefully to be looked after. 

We mif ht add to thefe, Chandlers ana Butchers ^ becaufe of 
thofe horrid Itinks , miderom and unwhollbme im-lls which pro- 
ceed from the Tallow , and corrupted Blood : At lead ihould no 
Cattel be kill'd within theCity ( to this day obferv'd in the 5m- 
m(h great Towns of America ) fince th * Flefli and Candles 
rriight fo eafily b^ broni^ht to the shambles and Shops from other 
pU'wes l^rte remote then th; former; by which means alio, might 
bj avoided the driving of Cattel dirough the Streets, which is a 
very gre^t inconvenience and Come danger : Th; fame might be 
jffi.-m'd of /* /)?7/w<?/»j^eT/, fo wittily perllrii^ed by frrffww, f^ -^^^^^^ -^ 
Salfamentarios mmpe , iiu]*iKari Civitatem , infici terram^ 
fli4m:»a , aerem & ignem , c^Jitjmod aliud eft element am. 1 hen 
i^: x\[t Butcher ; That the L^x Carnariaoi the Romans forbad 
th;m to kill,nr h;ve their SloMghter-hcmfes within the Walls ; that 
they had a certain Station alTigp'd them without ; neft faffim vi- 
Vi»t , tot am whem redd^tt peftiUnfem : So , as W6rc the people 
to choof; , maUnt (fays he) habere vicinos decern Lenones , eiu^m 
Hnum hoHionem ; They would rather dwell neer Ten Bawds^ then 
one Butcher : But this is injulfu* Salfamentaritu^ a cjUiL^le of the 
Fifhm'mgers. I could yet wilh that our Nalty Prifons and Com- 
mon G^ales might btar them Company ; fince I amrm tbcy might 
all be remov'dto fome dilhnt places neer the River , the fitua- 


32 fUMlFUQiUMiOtf 

don wbercof does lb inviie, and rarely cooiribiite to the etfe- 
^tiosoftc Butif tbeATarioeof themeoof iliisAge> be fe 
fardeplorablc , that ive am Qoc hope for fo abdbtnce a cure of 
allshtt is oStafwc ; at leaft let fucb , wbofe ir«rl^ are upon 
the Maigffitof t^Tb/mus , and which .ve indeed the moft in- 
tolletablB) be baniihcd Either otf, tndaot once dare to approach 
that filver Channel ( but at the diitance prefchb'd ) which gbdcs 
by her ftitely Paiaces , and irrigates her welcome Banks. 

What a new Spirit would thefeeafe Remedief create among 
tfafe Inbabitatinoi Ljndon^f what another <jrr»Mfill&fe in the 
face of dun^ ? and, there is none but obferves, and feels 
in himfeif the Chao^ whkh a Csrene and clear day produces ; how 
heavy and leflc di^'d q» motion. Yea , even to good h m mt m r 
andfriendlyindinattons, we many tim>:s find our felves when 
thsUcavemaredoiwded, anddifcompos'd? when the Stmh- 
sRMOblow, and th^ humours are fluid >, for what we are when 
theS)de is fair , and die j^n in good temper ? And there is rea- 
Ton , chat we , who are compos 'd of the Element t , (hould par- 
ticipate of their ftalltUt : For as the Hitmeurshvft their fourfe 
from the Elements j fo have our Paffions from the Htemors , and 
the Soul which is united to this Boij of ours , cannot but be af- 
fofted with its Inclinations. The very cLimb features themselves 
being fenfible of the alteration of die Aer , thou^ notby ratlor 
cinction , yet by many notorious Symfttmes. 

But I forbear to PhiUf0fhlf4 farther 'upon this Sntjeft j ca- 
pable of very lar^ and noble refle^ons ; having with my pro- 
OBs'dbrevitv, endevouredto(hewthe Inconveniencies and the 
Remedies ot what does (b univcrlally oflfend, and obTcnre the 
dory of this ova reaoMmed Metropolis ; and which, I hope , 
may produce ibme eife^ towards the reforming of fo pubiick a 
Nttifance. At leaft , let the continual (ejourn of our If Inftrious 
f H^'^LSSj wfaois^vcryBrcaAof our Noftrilfs, in 
whofe health all our hafi> i ii e( fe con£ft«,be predmisin eur Eyes and 
male our Noble Patrioet ncm a<^^»^1ed in PariUment , cooiult 
for th: fpeedy removal of this univerfal grievance. 

It is certainly of far greater concernment ( however light and 
aery itmay appetr to fome ) then the dra}'ning of a Fem^ o' beau- 
tifying an j4ijiudm(h , for which fome have received flich rnblick 
honoure , SiomesAnA Infertfti^tn ; ut^ wiW f \f ever any dnng 
did ) dfterve the Idtt acknowledgements both of the prefent and 


Tbt S nx)a>€ of Lon dofl cUpifdHd. . - 

futare Ages. Yon thcrefofc , t^t have Homfts in the C//;, j-qu 
tiut brin^ up your '^m/ and Fttmltits from ihiir fwect habiu- 
tions in tbc Country ; that iXMCiis. yoor Chili- en here ; thit have 
C^«/ at Ccmrt; that Ihidy the Ltutt ; In fine, ail that arc 
i^o->i.<j.xtti-i<:i;' aieuMiUmfitmHm degtntes^ b^a: apart in this rc- 
oueftof mine, which concerns xhz unirerul benefit; and the 
rather , for that hiving neither//4i;>«/iMi , OfjUt , nor Btmg'm 
the Cltji , I cannot bs; luipcc'ted to oblige any pirtiojlar. ihc 
Elegant Z^ftrfV/ and nicer D4tmes\ All tnat are in Health, and 
would continue To ; that arc infirm or Ccnvalcfcenc , and would 
be pet fed ; that affei^ the Glory of our Ce^t a:Kt Citj , HtAhk 
c: B0mtj , areconoernadin this Petinon ; and it \Jr,ll become 
CHIT niit Seiuaorf , and we earncftly expert it , that they would 
coftfulf iS well the State of the Ndtitr^ , as the T»Iitick, Body 
ef this Great Nation, fo conhderable a part whereof arc JnhdU- 
t*nts of rhis Aif^lt City ; fince , without their oujcual harmonv , 
andweli-bc'ng, there can nothing profper , or arnve to its tic- 
fifcd perfe^ion. 

Part. III. 

An offer at the Impn^emtmt^ and Melioratimt 
of //?e Acr (7/ L O N D O N, by way of 

F latitat ions , ^c, 

THere goes a pleafant T4/f of a certain S^ Poh'tick., that in 
the 1^ great F/a£>tt projcded, how by a VcHel fraight w:th 
pcvl'd Onions , wh'.ch ihould pafle along rh^ Thames by the OV7 , 
when the Wind fate in a favourable quarter , to actra^ the pol- 
lutior of the ^er , and uil away with the Infection to ifae Sea : 
Trani'planution of Difeafe we iomenmcs rcadof amwgft the 
MagmeiicsM^ o: nthc: Mdgicdi Carts jbutr^vwbefore of this 
way of Transfretation : but , however thii excellent conceic 
ha often afforded good mirth on the Sft^, and I now nwjtioD 
to prevent the Apptkaciooto'wbQt I here ftopound; There is yet 


j^ j: U M 1 r UG lU Ml Otr 

another expccficnt, which I have here to offer {fttnTbU of 
the poifonous and filthy /iim4^, remov'd ) by which the City and 
environs about it, might berendredone of the moll plealant 
and agreeable places in the world. In order to this I 

That all low-grounds circumjacent to the Oty , cfpcaally 
£ffi 2nd Sottt h- weft y be cart and contriv'd into fqiure plots, or 
Fields of twenty , thirty, and forty Akfrsy or more , feparatcd 
from each others by Fences of douole PMlfais^ or CorurffMllers^ 
which ftiould enclofe a Plantation of an hundred and fifty , or 
more, feet deep, about each Field ; not much unlike to what His 
MMjeftj has already begun by the wall from Old Sfrlng-ggrden 
to St. J^tmess in tmt ^^ri^; and is fomcwhat refcmbled in the 
new Sfring-iMrden at LMttheth. That thefe Pdif^U's be ele- 
gantly planted, diligently keot and fupply'd , with fijch Shruys , 
as yiela the moft fragrant and odorifierous Fltrwersy and are apteft 
to tinge* the Arr upon every gentle emUfion at a great drtance : 
Such as are ( for initance amon^ many others) the Sweet-trier , 
all the Pertcljmtnas and fVteUimds', the Common white and 
yelUw Jejfdmitiey both the SyringMs or Fife trees • the Guelier- 
Rofey the Mmk^y and all other Refes ; Gemfts M$Amm1cm -. To 
thefe may be added the %ulms odorMus^ Bmyet , Jiuufer , Lig- 
tmm-vit€ , Lavdnder : but above all , Rofetmiry , the Flowers 
whereof are credibly reported to give tlieir fent above thirty 
Leagues off at Sea , upon the coarts of Spain : and at fome di- 
ftance towards the Meadow fide, Vinesy yea, Hofs. 

Vtrlil. ■ Et Arlmtafdjfim , 

Et GlMtcds Salices , CafiMtupte Crocitmtpu rnhentem , 
Et fingMtm TiiiMm^ & ferrttglneos HyaciitthoSy &c. 

For, there if a very fwoct&nclling SdUyy and the bloffcms of 
the Tiiia or Lime-tree , arc incomparably fragrant j in brief, 
whatfocvcr is odoriferous and refrefliing. 

That the Sfocesy or j^res between thefe PsJifMds , and Fences, 
be employ 'd m Beds and Bordbrcs of Pi/tkj , Carndti^ms , Clcve , 
SfckztiHy-fUwer^PrimnfeSyAmiciUasy^ioUtSy not forgetting 

the Whitey which arc in flowtr twice t year, Jfril and ji»gif ; 


Thi Smoak of London difi^ud» 2? 

CtPfffty iMla^ NarcifitSyStra^UrrUs , whofe Very IcaVif as 
well as fruit, enait a Carduufutj and molt refreshing H^itm -. alfo 
ParUtMria Lutea, Mu.k^, Lemmon ^znd Mafiick^Thvmr. Spikfy 
CammtmiUy Balffh Ml»ty Marjoramy Pern f^me/yind Serf ilittmy 
&c. which upon the lealt preflure and cutting , breathe out and 
betray their raviihing odors. 

That the Fields, and Crofts within thefe Clofures , or Inviro- 
ning Gardens, be, fome of them, planted with wild I hjm: , and 
others referred for Plots oiBeans^ Teafe ( not Cabbages , whoie 
rotten and perilling ihlks have a very noifom and unhealthy 
fmell , and therefore by Hjppocrates utterly condemned near 
great Cities) butfuch bloffom-bearing Grain as fend forth their 
virtue at farthell diltance, and are all of them marketable at 
London- by which means, the Aer and fVinds perpetually fann'd 
from fo many circling and encompalTing Hedges, fragrant Shrubs, 
Trees, and Flowers ( the amputation and prunings of whofe fu- 
perfluities , may in fVlnter , on fome occafions of weather , and 
winds, be burnt, to vifit the City with a more benign /w^^i^) not 
onely all that did approach the Region , which is properly de- 
fion'd to be Flowery ; but even the whole City, would be fen- 
fible of the fweet and ravilliing varieties of the perfumes, as well 
as of the molt delightful and pleafant objeits , and places of 
Recreation for the Inhabitants; yielding alfo a Prsjpe^t of a no- 
ble and mafculine Majelty, by reafon of the frequent plantations 
o( Treesyind Nurferies for Ornament, Profit, ana Security; 
The remainder of the Fields included yielding the fame , and 
better Shelter , and Pafture for Sheep and Cattel then now ; 
that they lie bleak , expos'd and abandon'd to the winds , which 
perpetually invade them. 

That, to this end , the Gardiners ( which now cultivate the 
upper, more drie and ungrateful foil i be encouraged to begin 
P/<i«f<ir;o«/ in fuch places onely: anci the farther exorbitant en- 
creafe of Tenements , poor and na(ty Cottages near the City, 
be prohibited , which difgrace and take offfrom the fweetnefs 
and amatnity of the Environs of London , and are already be- 
come a great Eye-fore in the^rounds oppofite to His Majefifs 
Palace of Hiiite-hall ; whicn being converted to this ufe , 
might yield a diveriion inferior to none that could be ima- 

E gin'd 

t6 rUMlFUGlUMim^ 

an'd for Healthy Profit y and Beamy y which are the three Tr<f»- 
^endefwies that render a place witliout all exception. And 
thti is what ( in (hort ) 1 had to offer , for the Jmfrrvemtnt and 
Melioration of the Aer about Lofiien , and with which 1 {hall 
conclude this dilcourfe. 


ISBN: 904617 06 8